What is Tax Deducted at Source With Example

Tax Deducted at Source (TDS) is a system where a certain percentage of tax is deducted from payments made to certain entities before the payment is made to them. TDS is applicable on various types of payments such as salary, rent, professional fees, etc. The payer of the income, who is liable to deduct TDS, is required to deposit the deducted amount to the government’s account. The entity receiving the payment, who bears the burden of TDS, can claim a refund or adjustment of the deducted tax when they file their income tax return. TDS serves as an advance tax collection mechanism, ensuring that individuals and businesses pay their taxes regularly and avoid any last-minute tax liabilities. For example, if an employer deducts 10% TDS from an employee’s salary, the employee will receive their salary minus the deducted TDS amount. When filing their income tax return, the employee can claim the deducted TDS as a credit, reducing their overall tax liability.

Understanding Tax Deducted at Source (TDS)

TDS (Tax Deducted at Source) is a part of the income tax system in India, where a certain percentage of tax is deducted before making specified payments. This process ensures the collection of tax from individuals and businesses at regular intervals.

TDS is applicable on various types of payments. These include:

  • Salary
  • Commission
  • Rent
  • Professional fees
  • Interest
  • Dividends

The rate of TDS deduction varies depending on the type of payment and the recipient’s tax bracket. The payer, known as the deductor, is responsible for deducting the appropriate amount and depositing it to the government’s account.

Procedure for TDS Deduction

  1. The deductor calculates the TDS amount based on the specified rate and the recipient’s PAN (Permanent Account Number).
  2. The deductor issues a TDS certificate (Form 16/16A) to the recipient, specifying the TDS amount deducted.
  3. The deductor deposits the TDS amount to the government’s account within a specified timeframe.

Benefits of TDS

TDS offers several benefits to both the government and taxpayers:

  • Regular tax collection: TDS ensures that tax is collected regularly, reducing the burden during tax filing season.
  • Plug revenue leakages: It prevents taxpayers from evading taxes by deducting a portion at the source.
  • Lower tax liability: TDS prepays tax, reducing the tax liability at the time of filing returns.
  • Convenience: It simplifies tax compliance for taxpayers as they do not have to pay the entire tax amount upfront.

Example of TDS Calculation

Consider an employee with a monthly salary of ₹50,000. The TDS deduction rate for salary is 10%.

Salary Earned TDS Rate TDS Deducted
₹50,000 10% ₹5,000

In this case, the employer (deductor) will deduct ₹5,000 as TDS from the employee’s salary every month. This amount will be deposited to the government’s account and the employee will receive a TDS certificate reflecting the deduction.

TDS Mechanism

Tax Deducted at Source (TDS) is a mechanism in which a certain percentage of tax is deducted from payments made to specific individuals or entities before the payment is made. This mechanism is primarily used to collect tax revenue in advance and prevent tax evasion.

  • Withholding Agent: The entity responsible for deducting TDS from payments is known as the withholding agent. It can be an employer, payer of rent, contractor, or any other entity making specified payments.
  • Deductee: The individual or entity to whom the payment is made is referred to as the deductee.
  • TDS Rate: The percentage of tax deducted from the payment is based on the applicable TDS rate specified by the Income Tax Department.

Implications for Taxpayers

TDS has significant implications for taxpayers, including:

  • Reduced Tax Liability: TDS reduces the final tax liability of the deductee by reducing the taxable income. However, the deductee must still file their tax return and claim the TDS deducted as a credit against their tax liability.
  • Tax Compliance: TDS ensures that taxes are collected in advance, reducing the risk of tax avoidance and evasion. It also simplifies tax compliance for taxpayers by ensuring that a portion of their tax liability has already been paid.
  • Interest and Penalties: If the withholding agent fails to deduct or deposit TDS, they may be subject to interest and penalties.

Examples of TDS Deduction

Nature of Payment TDS Rate
Salary 10%
Rent 10%
Professional fees 10%
Interest on securities 10%
Dividends 10%

Tax Deducted at Source (TDS)

Tax Deducted at Source (TDS) is a method of collecting tax on income at the point of payment. It requires certain payers (deductors) to deduct tax at the source before making any specified payments to the recipients (deductees). The tax deducted is then deposited to the government’s account.

Examples and Calculations of TDS on Various Incomes

TDS rates and applicability vary depending on the type of income:

1. Salary Income

  • Applicable to salaried employees earning above the exemption limit.
  • Deducted by the employer before disbursing the salary.
  • TDS rate depends on tax slab and other factors (e.g., investments, exemptions).


* Employee’s monthly salary: ₹50,000
* Investment in ELSS (eligible for deduction under Section 80C): ₹20,000
* TDS deduction: ₹5,000 (as per tax slab and investment declarations)

2. Interest Income

  • Applicable to interest earned from bank deposits, bonds, and other specified investments.
  • Deducted by the bank or financial institution making the interest payment.
  • TDS rate: 10% or higher depending on the source of interest.


* Interest earned on fixed deposit: ₹10,000
* TDS deduction: ₹1,000 (at 10%)

3. Rent Income

  • Applicable to rental income earned from letting out property.
  • Deducted by the tenant before making the rent payment.
  • TDS rate: 5% or higher depending on certain conditions (e.g., PAN declaration).


* Monthly rent received: ₹15,000
* Tenant has not submitted PAN: ₹750 (at 5%)
* Tenant has submitted PAN: ₹0 (no TDS deduction)

4. Professional Fees

  • Applicable to income earned by professionals, such as doctors, lawyers, and freelancers.
  • Deducted by the payer (e.g., client) before making the payment.
  • TDS rate: 10% or as per estimated tax liability.


* Professional fees received: ₹20,000
* TDS deduction: ₹2,000 (at 10%)

5. Commission Income

  • Applicable to income earned from commission paid on sales or services.
  • Deducted by the payer (e.g., employer) before making the payment.
  • TDS rate: 5% or as per estimated tax liability.


* Commission received: ₹15,000
* TDS deduction: ₹750 (at 5%)

Income Type Deductor TDS Rate
Salary Employer As per tax slab (varies)
Interest Bank/Financial Institution 10% or higher (depends on source)
Rent Tenant 5% or higher (depends on PAN declaration)
Professional Fees Payer (e.g., client) 10% or estimated tax liability
Commission Income Payer (e.g., employer) 5% or estimated tax liability

Tax Deducted at Source (TDS)

Tax Deducted at Source (TDS) is a mechanism where a specified percentage of tax is deducted by the payer (deductor) before making payment to the payee (recipient). The responsibility of deducting tax at source lies with the payer or deductor. The deducted tax is then deposited with the government.

Impact of TDS on Financial Planning

TDS can have a significant impact on financial planning. Here’s how:

  • Reduced Cash Flow: TDS reduces the amount of cash available to the recipient, as a portion of the payment is deducted as tax.
  • Tax Return Adjustment: TDS affects tax return calculations. The recipient needs to claim the TDS deducted as a credit against their final tax liability. Failure to do so may result in additional tax liability.
  • Investment Decisions: TDS can influence investment decisions. Individuals may consider investments that offer tax-saving options to offset the TDS deduction.

Compliance with TDS Regulations

Complying with TDS regulations is crucial to avoid penalties and legal consequences. Here are the key responsibilities:

  • Issuing TDS Certificate: The deductor is required to issue TDS certificates to the recipient, providing details of the TDS deducted and deposited.
  • Filing TDS Returns: The deductor must file quarterly TDS returns with the tax authorities.
  • Depositing TDS Amount: The deducted tax should be deposited with the designated bank account within the stipulated time frame.

TDS Rates and Threshold Limits for Different Income Types

TDS Rates and Threshold Limits
Nature of Income Threshold Limit Applicable TDS Rate
Salary ₹250,000 per year 10-30% (depending on tax bracket)
Interest on Deposits ₹40,000 per year 10% (for resident individuals)
Professional Fees ₹250,000 per year 10% (for non-PAN holders)

And there you have it, folks! Tax Deducted at Source, simplified and demystified. Filing taxes can be a daunting task, but understanding this concept can make it a whole lot easier. Remember, it’s not rocket science – just some basic arithmetic and knowledge of tax rules. So, the next time you receive a salary slip, don’t scratch your head over the “TDS deducted” section. You know what it is and how it works. Thanks for sticking with me till the end. If you found this article helpful, don’t forget to share it with others. And do check back for more tax-related tidbits in the future. Cheers!