Fundamentals are the underlying principles, building blocks, or basic truths that form the foundation of a subject or field of knowledge. They are essential concepts that provide a framework for understanding and explaining more complex phenomena. Fundamentals serve as a starting point for further learning and can be used to develop new theories, tools, or technologies. By understanding the fundamental principles, we gain a deeper comprehension of the subject matter and can apply it to realworld situations.
Intrinsic Value Assessment
The intrinsic value of an asset is its value based on its fundamentals, rather than its market price. These fundamentals include the asset’s earnings, cash flow, assets, and liabilities, as well as the overall economic environment.
Intrinsic value assessment is a fundamental analysis technique used to determine the value of an asset by analyzing its financial statements and other data. The goal of intrinsic value assessment is to determine whether an asset is overvalued or undervalued in the market.
 Discounted cash flow analysis: This method involves forecasting the asset’s future cash flows and then discounting them back to the present at an appropriate discount rate.
 Assetbased valuation: This method involves valuing the asset’s individual components, such as its inventory, property, and equipment.
 Comparable company analysis: This method involves comparing the asset to similar assets that are publicly traded.
The following table provides a comparison of the three main intrinsic value assessment methods:
Method  Advantages  Disadvantages 

Discounted cash flow analysis 


Assetbased valuation 


Comparable company analysis 


Intrinsic value assessment is a complex and challenging task, but it can be a valuable tool for investors who want to identify undervalued assets with the potential for future growth.
Earnings Power Value Estimation
Earnings Power Value (EPV) is a fundamental valuation method that determines the value of a company’s common stock based on its expected future earnings power. It assumes that a company’s value is derived from its ability to generate earnings over time.
Steps in Earnings Power Value Estimation:
1. **Estimate Future Earnings:** Utilize historical data, financial projections, and industry analysis to forecast the company’s future earnings per share (EPS) for a specified period, typically 510 years.
2. **Establish Capitalization Rate:** Determine the appropriate capitalization rate (r) to apply to the future earnings. This rate reflects the risk associated with the company and the desired return rate for investors.
3. **Calculate Earnings Power Value:** Multiply the estimated future EPS by the capitalization rate to arrive at the EPV:
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EPV = Future EPS x Capitalization Rate
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Factors Influencing Capitalization Rate:
– Company’s financial health
– Industry risk
– Interest rates
– Investor expectations
Table: Example of Earnings Power Value Estimation
 Company  Estimated Future EPS  Capitalization Rate  Earnings Power Value 
————
 ABC Corp  $2.50  8%  $31.25 
 XYZ Co  $3.00  7%  $42.86 
 PQR LLC  $1.80  9%  $20.00 
Dividend Discount Model
The Dividend Discount Model (DDM) is a fundamental valuation method that calculates the intrinsic value of a stock based on its current dividends and the expected growth rate of those dividends. The formula for the DDM is:
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Intrinsic Value = Present Value of Future Dividends / Discount Rate
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The present value of future dividends is the sum of all the dividends that the investor expects to receive from the stock over the course of its life, discounted back to the present day at the discount rate. The discount rate is typically the investor’s required rate of return.
The DDM is a relatively simple and straightforward valuation method, but it is important to use realistic assumptions about the growth rate of dividends and the discount rate. If the assumptions are not realistic, the intrinsic value calculated by the DDM will not be accurate.
Here is a table summarizing the key assumptions and inputs used in the DDM:
 Assumption/Input  Description 
——
 Current dividend  The most recent dividend paid by the company 
 Growth rate of dividends  The expected annual growth rate of dividends 
 Discount rate  The investor’s required rate of return 
The DDM can be used to value any stock that pays dividends. However, it is important to note that the DDM is only an estimate of the intrinsic value of a stock. The actual value of a stock can be affected by a number of factors, including the overall economy, the company’s industry, and the company’s specific financial condition.
Liquidation Value Computation
Liquidation value is an estimate of the net worth of a company, assuming liquidation of all assets. It is calculated by adding the value of all the company’s assets and subtracting all its liabilities.
The following steps are involved in calculating the liquidation value of a company:
1.
Determine the fair market value of all the company’s assets, such as inventory, property, plant, and equipment.
2.
Add the total value of all the company’s assets.
3.
Determine the amount of all the company’s liabilities, such as accounts payable, accrued expenses, and longterm debt.
4.
Subtract the total amount of liabilities from the total value of assets.
The resulting value is the estimated liquidation value of the company.
The following is an example of a liquidation value calculation:
Asset  Value 

Inventory  $100,000 
Property, plant, and equipment  $200,000 
Total assets  $300,000 
Liability  Amount 

Accounts payable  $50,000 
Accrued expenses  $25,000 
Longterm debt  $100,000 
Total liabilities  $175,000 
Liquidation value  $300,000 – $175,000 = $125,000 
Well, there you have it, folks! Understanding fundamentals is like deciphering a secret code – it takes patience, practice, and a willingness to dig deep. Whether you’re tackling math equations, mastering a new skill, or navigating life’s challenges, having a solid grasp of the basics can give you an edge. So, keep learning, keep exploring, and keep growing. As always, thanks for reading, and I hope you’ll swing by again soon. Remember, knowledge is power, and the more you have, the better equipped you’ll be to conquer the world – one fundamental at a time! Cheers!